• December 28, 2013: The Committee of Compromise ends their negotiations, reaching an agreement on the activity of the National Assembly and the establishment of a constitutional court to ensure the constitutionality of proposed bills. • November 10, 2013: Int•    December 17, 2010: The wave of revolutions in the Middle East, known as the “Arab Spring”, begins with the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia and the nation-wide protests that follow.

•    January 15, 2011: Ben Ali flees the country.

•    February 18, 2011: Under presidential decree, The High Commission for the Realization of Revolution Objectives, Political Reforms and Democratic Transition is created, tasked with guiding the democratic transition in Tunisia. 

•    March 23, 2011: The Constitutional Court announces that under Article 57 of the 1959 Constitution, Fouad Mebazaa, the President of the Tunisian Parliament, should serve as interim President until the parliamentary and presidential elections. Under Decree Law No. 14/2011, Mebazaa would have the power to organize a legislative board to act as a transitional government until a constituent assembly is formally elected.

•    April 18, 2011:  The Constitutional Court establishes the 16-member Tunisian Independent High Electoral Commission (ISIE) through Decree Law No. 27 to organize elections for the National Constituent Assembly (NCA). 

•    May 10, 2011: The ISIE passes an “election law” through Decree Law No. 35 outlining the terms of the NCA election. 

•    May 20, 2011: Presidential decree No. 582 establishes the 218-member National Constituent Assembly (NCA) tasked with drafting a new constitution within a year. 

•    July 11, 2011: The ISIE launches a nationwide public outreach and voter education campaign

•    August 3, 2011: The ISIE amends and finalizes the “election law” through Decree 72/2011. NCA members will be elected through a system of proportional representation by region and all candidate lists must represent equal numbers of men and women. 

•    September 24, 2011: The ISIE promulgates Decree 87/2011, dictating the organization of political parties, and Decree 88/2011, creating terms by which to regulate associations. 

•    October 23, 2011: 54% of the Tunisian population visits polling stations to elect their 217 Constituent Assembly members. 70 political parties participate in this election. 

•    November 14, 2011: The ISIE formally announces the results of the NCA election. The moderate Islamist Ennahda party wins the majority vote, receiving 89 of the 217 seats.

•    November 22, 2011: The new Constituent Assembly meets for the first time to approve a state budget and write an interim constitution. 

•    December 10, 2011: The Constituent Assembly adopts an interim constitution, the “Law on the Interim Organization of Public Powers of Tunisia”, to replace the 1959 constitution. 

•    December 12, 2011: The Constituent Assembly elects Dr. Moncef Marzouki, president of the Congress for the Republic, as president of the Republic.  

•    January 2012: The Constituent Assembly splits into 6 working groups, each of which is tasked to draft one of the six sections of the new constitution. The president of the NCA and chairs of the six drafting commissions form the “Joint Committee for Coordinating and Drafting” (JCCD) responsible for overseeing the commission drafts.

•    February 4, 2012: The Ennahda party reveals its constitution project to the media, declaring its intention to center legislation around principals of sharia law. 

•    March 26, 2012: The Ennahda party announces its intention to maintain Article 1 of the 1959 constitution that “Tunisia shall be a free, independent and sovereign State; its religion shall be Islam, its language shall be Arabic and its form of government shall be the republic”, calling into question the party’s dedication to making sharia law the basis for all legislation.

•    June 4, 2012: The NCA releases a final draft of the Preamble to the new Constitution. 

•    August 2, 2012: The Ennahda party proposes a law to outlaw blasphemy in Tunisia. This law is rejected by the Constituent Assembly in October. 

•    August 14, 2012: The Constituent Assembly releases a first draft of the new constitution, which sparks controversy because of a clause in Article 28 that defines women as being “complementary” to men instead of “equal”. The word is later changed to “equal”. 

•    October 14, 2012: The Constituent Assembly schedules parliamentary elections to be held on June 23, 2013, after a constitution is adopted. 

•    October 16, 2012: The Tunisian General Labor Union (UGTT) launches a political forum for Tunisia called the National Dialogue Congress.  

•    December 14, 2012: The Constituent Assembly releases a second draft of the new constitution. 

•    January 8, 2013: As part of a campaign to include illiterate voters in the elections, the Tunisian director for the International Foundation for Electoral Systems and the Tunisian Minister of Social Affairs publish the first-ever Arabic and French election manual for illiterate voters

•    January 22, 2013: Human Rights Watch issues a statement and sends Tunisian ANC members a letter urging them to address articles 5, 15, 73, and 110 in the second draft of the constitution that “risk undermining human rights”.

•    January-February 2013: The NCA, with the help of the United Nations Development Program, spearheads a two-month outreach campaign to gather input and recommendations from the Tunisian people. They receive over 10,000 suggestions for constitutional amendments. 

•    February 6, 2013: Chokri Belaid, coordinator of the Democratic Patriots’ Movement, is assassinated, causing a temporary delay in the constitutional drafting process. 

•    April 25, 2013: The Constituent Assembly releases a third draft of the new constitution.

•    April 26, 2013: Members of the ANC criticize JCCD members for making substantive changes to the draft constitution instead of just stylistic changes. 

•    May 2013: Secular and Islamist parties debate the role of Islam, particularly of Sharia Law, in the new constitution, causing delays. Debate is centered on the mention of Islam in articles 1, 72, and 136 of the newest constitutional draft.

•    June 1, 2013: The constitutional drafting committee releases a final draft of the constitution, which calls for a semi-presidential system and introduces a group of five independent constitutional bodies responsible for preventing human right abuses and corruption, ensuring free and democratic elections and pursuing sustainable development. 

•    June 17, 2013: 60 ANC members sign a petition denouncing the fourth draft of the constitution claiming it demonstrates the partisan interests of the ruling Ennahda party. 

•    July 1, 2013: Opposition and JCCD members accuse the ANC of breaching their rules and procedures in the newest constitutional draft by not taking into account the committee’s input or the consensus drawn from a national dialogue. They ask the ANC to vote on the draft article by article to respect the nation’s voice.  

•    July 25, 2013: Mohamed Brahmi, founder and former leader of the People’s Movement, is assassinated outside of his home. Protesters hit the streets calling for the government to step down, saying that they had not been tough enough with Islamist extremists after Belaid’s assassination in February. Brahmi had been shot with the same gun used to kill Belaid. 

•    July 26, 2013: More than 60 opposition members withdraw from the NCA and call for a sit-in, blaming the Ennahda party for Brahmi’s death.

•    July 28, 2013: Over 10,000 Tunisians gather at Brahmi’s funeral in protest against the government. These protests turn violent as the police attempt to control the crowds. 

•    August 7, 2013: The speaker of the NCA suspends the NCA’s work “until the launch of a national dialogue”.

•    September 3, 2013: The Ennahda party agrees to step down after a month, at which time the constitution would be finished and parliamentary elections organized. 

•    September 7, 2013: After a 40-day period of mourning for Mohamed Brahmi, thousands of Tunisians flock to the street in protest against the Ennahda-led government.

•    September 10, 2013: Ben Jaafar announces the NCA’s plan to resume their work on a new constitution, holding full assembly meetings within a week.

•    September 24, 2013: Hi Excellency Mohamed Moncef Marzouki, President of Tunisia, gives a lecture in New York entitled, "The Past, Present, and Future of the Arab Spring".

•    September 28, 2013: Tunisia’s Islamist-led government agrees to resign after three weeks of negotiations between the Ennahda party and their secular opposition, in which they would organize elections and form a new “caretaker government” to take over responsibility for the rest of the transition period.

•    October 5, 2013: Negotiations between the ruling Ennahda party and their secular opponents begin, with the aim of ending the months of political deadlock.

•    October 26, 2013: Tunisia begins a round of National Dialogue in order to appoint a new Prime Minister.

•    November 10, 2013: Interim President, Moncef Marzouki, calls for the constitution to be finished within a month in order to help push through the current constitutional stalemate.

 •    November and December 2013: Tunisia’s Ennahda party and opposition political groups struggle to come to an agreement over who should become the new Prime Minister. President warns that this delay and apparent inability to work together could cause a damaging delay in the formation of a new constitution.

•    December 14, 2013: After weeks of debate in a “National Dialogue”, 21 of Tunisia’s main political parties agree to name Mehdi Jomaa, an independent technocrat, the country’s next Prime Minister, to lead a caretaker government until elections in 2014.

•    December 25, 2013: Mediators give Prime Minister Jomaa until January 14th to form a caretaker government to replace the previous Ennahda-led government. The Tunisian Parliament announces their hope to finish voting on the draft constitution by the 14th, the third anniversary of the Tunisian Uprising.

•    December 28, 2013: The Committee of Compromise ends their negotiations, reaching an agreement on the activity of the National Assembly and the establishment of a constitutional court to ensure the constitutionality of proposed bills.

•    December 30, 2013: Tunisia’s National Assembly begins voting on the draft constitution.

•    January 4, 2014: The National Assembly approves Article 1 of the draft constitution, declaring Islam as Tunisia’s religion, but rejects amendments calling for Islam to be the main source of law.

•    January 9, 2014: The Tunisian Prime Minister Ali Larayedh resigns and his Ennahda-led coalition government is dissolved to make way for the new caretaker government led by Prime Minister Jomaa. 

•    January 15, 2014: Hundreds of Tunisian judges and lawyers demonstrate outside of the National Constituent Assembly condemning the draft constitution for not guaranteeing independence of the judiciary.

 

• November 27, 2013: The Co•    January 25, 2011: Sparked by the death of Khaled Saeed, who was beaten to death by police officers in a public street in June 2010, revolutionaries gather in a nation-wide protest against President Hosni Mubarak. 

•    February 11, 2011: President Hosni Mubarak resigns and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) takes over interim executive and legislative authority.

•    February 13, 2011: SCAF suspends the constitution and parliament, electing a seven-member constitutional reform committee to draft amendments to the constitution. 

•    March 19, 2011: In a referendum, 77% of Egyptian voters (18.5 million people) declared in favor of the proposed constitutional amendments.   

•    March 30, 2011: SCAF issues a 62-article interim constitution/ Constitutional Declaration defining the roles of executive and judicial powers and outlining the terms of a presidential election.

•    April 13, 2011: Ex-president Hosni Mubarak is arrested for allegations of corruption. 

•    May 30, 2011: SCAF presents a draft electoral law for parliamentary elections to the People’s Assembly, which proposes a mixed system whereby one-third of the seats are chosen by proportional representation and the other two-thirds by bloc voting.  

•    September 27, 2011: Following a series of protests, SCAF approves a new electoral law. Two-thirds of parliamentary seats will be filled by those elected through proportional representation and one-third by those elected through bloc voting.

•    October 14, 2011: SCAF leaders announce that presidential elections will not be held until after the parliament is elected, a new constitution is drafted, and a constitutional assembly is established.

•    January 19, 2012: Under pressure from demonstrators, SCAF leaders lay the legal groundwork for a presidential election in June. 

•    January 21, 2012: The Muslim Brotherhood-dominated People’s Assembly is elected by popular vote. 

•    February 25, 2012: An Islamist-dominated “Shura” (upper-house of parliament) is elected. 

•    March 26, 2012: Members of Parliament appoint a 100-member Constitutional Assembly.  

•    April 10, 2012: The Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) renders Egypt’s first Constituent Assembly unconstitutional, because of its questionable formation, and unrepresentative of women, youth and minority groups. 

•    May 23 – 24, 2012: Egypt holds presidential elections

•    June 12, 2012: A second 100-member Constituent Assembly is elected. Following debate over the role of Islam in the new constitution, 57 secular MPs resign, leaving an Islamist-dominated Constitutional Assembly to write the new constitution. 

•    June 15, 2012: SCAF dissolves the parliament after the SCC declares the 2011 electoral law unconstitutional. 

•    June 17, 2012: SCAF amends the 2011 Constitutional Declaration to limit presidential power and to clarify the role of SCAF during the transitional period. 

•     June 30, 2012: Mohammed Mursi, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, is sworn in as Egypt’s new President. 

•    July 10, 2012: President Morsi orders the parliament to reconvene but is shut down by the SCC. 

•    August 2, 2012: President Morsi appoints a new cabinet.

•    October 10, 2012: The Constitutional Assembly issues the first (incomplete) draft of a new constitution. 

•    November 22, 2012: In a constitutional declaration, President Morsi declares his decisions above judicial review until a new parliament is elected, extends the constitutional mandate by two months and demands that the constitutional assembly not be disbanded. Morsi retracts parts of this decree in December because of widespread contention. 

•    November 29, 2012: The Constitutional Assembly’s finalizes a constitutional draft and President Morsi calls for a December 15th referendum.  

•    December 4 and 5, 2012: Thousands organize outside Morsi’s presidential palace protesting his November declaration and demanding that he call off the upcoming referendum. The protest turns violent as Morsi supporters attack the crowd, leaving 10 dead. 

•    December 15 and 22, 2012: The Constituent Assembly holds a constitutional referendum in which 63.8% of Egyptian voters declared in favor of the new constitution. Opposition groups protest the validity of these results but Morsi signs the constitution into law on December 25th. 

•    January 25, 2013: On the second anniversary of the revolution that toppled Hosni Mubarak, protests against President Morsi turn violent, leaving 5 dead and many more injured. 

•    June 30, 2013: Thousands of protesters gather in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, calling for the resignation of President Morsi on the anniversary of his inauguration. Violent clashes between Morsi opponents and supporters leave 5 people dead and many more injured. 

•    July 3, 2013: After ongoing public protests Mohamed Morsi is ousted in a SCAF-led coup de’etat and SCAF suspends Egypt’s Constitution. SCAF vests the Supreme Constitutional Court with executive power and names Chairman Adli Mansour the acting president. 

•    July 8, 2013: Interim president Adli Mansour declares a new 33-article constitutional declaration for the transitional period, which calls for a referendum to amend the 2012 constitution with parliamentary and presidential elections to follow. 

•    August 14, 2013: 421 people are killed in a clash between Morsi supporters and the police. 

•    September 1, 2013: A new 50-member Constitutional Assembly is appointed, with 5 seats reserved for women and few for Islamists. 

•    September 4, 2013: Members of the Muslim Brotherhood protest an amendment to the suspended 2012 constitution that bans religious parties from becoming active in the political arena. 

•    September 5, 2013: Mohammed Ibrahim, Egypt’s Interior Minister, survives an assassination attempt that wounds 22 people.  

•    September 8, 2013: The 50-member Constituent Assembly, designed to amend the 2012 constitution, meets for the first time, electing opposition leader and former presidential candidate Amr Moussa as its President.

•    September 10, 2013: The Constituent Assembly elects Rapporteurs for its four sub-committees. The first three committees will be designated one of the constitution’s three chapters to work on: Primary Elements of the State, Political Regime, and Freedoms and Rights. The fourth sub-committee will be responsible for public education and consultation during the amendment period. 

•    September 11, 2013: Interim President Adly Mansour forms the Supreme Electoral Committee by decree, in preparation for a constitutional referendum. 

•    September 18, 2013: Egypt’s Grand Mufti, Shawky Allam, announces his staunch opposition to proposed amendments to constitutional articles relating to Islam and Sharia Law, suggesting that these amendments do not reflect the character of the predominantly Islamic Egyptian state.   

•    September 25, 2013: Constituent Assembly announces the amendment of Article 54 of the constitution, banning the formation of religiously-oriented political parties.  

•     September 27, 2013: Egypt’s Islamist Al-Nour Party rejects the amendment of Article 54 as “discriminatory and exclusionary”.  

•    September 2013: Mass demonstrations continue as Morsi supporters denounce the interim government and call for Morsi’s reinstatement. More than 1,000 people have died in violent clashes since Morsi was deposed. 

•    October 2, 2013: Amr Mousa announces the Constituent assembly’s intention to entirely re-write the 2012 constitution instead of just amending select articles. A first draft of the constitution is to be released in mid-October and a final draft is expected by November

•    October 6, 2013: Violent clashes between Morsi and military supporters leave 50 dead and at least 286 injured. It is one of the deadliest clashes since the violence of August 14th, which took 421 lives. 

•    October 23, 2013: A representative of the the 50-member Constituent Assembly, charged with amending the 2012 constitution, announces that the Assembly has agreed on 189 of the 200 expected articles in the charter. 18 of those 189 articles are brand new. The committee will finalize the charter by December 3, 2013 in time for a Referendum to be held in late December.

•    October 27, 2013: Egypt's constitutional panel begins voting on the new draft constitution.

•    October 31, 2013: The Constitutional Committee passes an article for the draft constitution banning the censorship of Egypt’s state media.

•    November 2, 2013: The Constitutional Committee debates controversial provisions that the Egyptian Military has suggested granting them “special privileges” such as the ability to try civilians who threaten their military interests in secret military courts.

•    November 4, 2013: The trial of ousted President Mohamed Morsi begins, with frequent interruptions by Morsi and his supporters claiming that he was wrongfully deposed and is still Egypt’s rightful President.

•    November 5, 2013: Leader of the constitution-drafting panel, Amr Moussa, claims that the panel’s final debates will be held in public and that those “alternate (substitute)” panel members, who had previously been barred from joining the proceedings, will now have access.

•    November 7, 2013Christian members of the constitution-drafting panel threaten to quit after controversial debates over articles defining the role of Islam and Sharia law threatened to give too much power to Islamic extremists.

•    November 8, 2013: The constitution-writing panel approves an amendment abolishing the Upper House of Parliament (The Shura Council) in favor of a unicameral legislative system. The Egyptian public will choose to accept or reject this proposal in the December referendum.

•    November 11, 2013: The constitution-writing panel votes to give a future president the power to dissolve Parliament if they do not endorse his choice for the role of Prime Minister.

•    November 20, 2013: The State Information Service (SIS) begins a nationwide media initiative to explain the constitution’s articles and to convince the public to register and vote in the upcoming constitutional referendum.

•    November 21, 2013: The Constituent Assembly votes to keep article giving the Egyptian military the right to try civilians in military courts and, stirring even further controversy, adds a second article whereby, for the next 8 years, the defense minister would be a military member.

•    November 22, 2013: Egypt’s Salafist, Nour, and Misr Al-Qawiya parties reject the articles in the draft constitution granting the military special privileges, suggesting that it demonstrates an unwelcome turn against democracy.

•    November 24, 2013: President Adly Mansour signs into law a bill that limits rallies, protests, and other public gatherings, demanding protest organizers to give authorities at least 3 days written warning beforehand.

•    November 26, 2013: Ten members of the Constituent Assembly suspend their work on the constitution after roughly 30 protesters, demanding the removal of the controversial article allowing the military to try civilians, were arrested for breaking the new law requiring them to give three days written notice to authorities before beginning a protest.

•    November 27, 2013: The Constituent Assembly finishes amending the suspended constitution and prepare for an article-by-article vote on the document to be held on the 30th.

•    November 30-December 1, 2013: The Constituent Assembly votes on and approves the new constitution, amid heavy anti-government protests in Cairo’s Tahrir Square.

•    December 3, 2013: President Adly Monsour approves the new constitution, announcing that the constitutional referendum would be held within a month.

•    December 14, 2013: President Adly Monsour sets the constitutional referendum for January 14th-15th.

•    December 16, 2013: The Islamist Morsi supporters and members of Egypt’s anti-coup youth movement decide to boycott the January referendum.

•    December 18, 2013: Two members of Egypt’s constitution-drafting panel claim that changes were made to the text of the draft constitution after the committee had approved the document in preparation for a national referendum. Amr Moussa, leader of the constitution-drafting panel, denies these allegations.

•    December 19, 2013: United Nations Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, praises Egypt’s constitutional committee for revising the text to say “civilian government” instead of “civilian rule”, an amendment he claims is necessary to promote diversity in a democratic country as it welcomes religious and military leaders to take-on positions of authority in the new Egyptian Government. The first session of Egypt’s National Dialogue opens in Cairo.

•    December 23, 2013: A car bomb explosion outside of a security base in the city of Mansoura kills 14 and injures 134. Prime Minister Hazem Beblawi condemns the Muslim Brotherhood, whose members were suspected of orchestrating the attack, declaring it a “terrorist” organization.

•    December 24, 2013: Egyptian security forces raid al-Azhar University, arresting dozens of male and female students in an attempt to crack down on student activists before the January referendum.

•    December 29, 2013: President Adly Monsour announces the government’s commitment to holding parliamentary and presidential elections within 6 months of the January referendum, should the public approve the draft constitution.

•    January 3, 2014: Nasr el-Dim Shaisha, Spokesman for Egypt’s High Elections Commission Counselor, announces that over 16,000 judges have been called upon to supervise the January constitutional referendum. Clashes between Morsi supporters and the Egyptian security forces continue, claiming two more lives and wounding nine others.

•    January 6, 2014: President Adly Monsour amends the political rights law, introducing special polling stations to make it easier for Egyptians who live far from the registered addresses to vote in the constitutional referendum.

•    January 8-12, 2014: Egyptian ex-patriots in 161 different countries vote on the constitutional draft.

•    January 13, 2014: Human Rights Watch condemns the Egyptian authorities for continuing to arrest activists for hanging posters calling for a “no” vote in the constitutional referendum, claiming that it restricts their freedom of choice. HRW reporters claim that some of these activists were also beaten and subjected to violent emotional and physical abuse while in custody.

•    January 14-15, 2014: Egyptians vote in a constitutional referendum amidst continued violence between Morsi supporters and security forces that killed 11 people in 3 provinces. 79 people were arrested during these protests.

•    January 18, 2014: The official results of the national referendum reveal that 98.1% of voters approved the new constitution. Voter turnout for the referendum was much lower than anticipated, however, with only 38.6% of eligible voters casting a ballot.

 

 

 

•    February 15, 2011: Libya’s Revolution begins as the arrest of a human-rights activist in Benghazi triggers nation-wide protests against the 40-year ruler, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.  

•    February 27, 2011: In Benghazi, revolution leaders form the National Transitional Council (NTC) to act as the face of the revolution. 

•    March 5, 2011: International and local actors officially recognize the NTC as the legitimate transitional government for Libya. The NTC hold their first meeting in Benghazi and announce several leadership positions. 

•    March 17, 2011: The UN Security Council issue Resolution 1973 declaring Libya a “no fly zone” and calling for “all necessary measures” to be taken to protect the Libyan people.

•    March 23, 2011: The Executive Board of the NTC is officially formed, led by Mahmoud Jibril. The NTC re-organizes their Executive Board in October but Jibril remains in charge of it. 

•    March 29, 2011: The NTC publishes “A Vision on a Democratic Libya”, their 8-point plan for the democratic future of Libya.

•    August 3, 2011: The NTC passes a 37-article Interim Constitutional Declaration announcing its vision for a democratic Libya, providing the legal framework for a new constitution to be written and a new government to be elected, and instating a 20-month deadline for the transitional period. 

•    September 21, 2011: The UN General Assembly officially recognizes the NTC as the Libya’s interim government. 

•    October 20, 2011: Colonel Gaddafi is caught fleeing his hometown of Sirte and is killed by Libyan rebels. 

•    October 23, 2011: Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, the deputy head of the NTC, declares the war over and the people of Libya “free”.  

•    November 22, 2011: The NTC announces the new interim government, demonstrating by its choices their desire to sooth regional rivalries.  

•    January 28, 2012: The NTC releases a draft election law describing the procedure by which members of the 200-member General National Congress (GNC) are to be elected in June 2012. 

•    February 7, 2012: The NTC establishes the High National Election Commission (HNEC), tasked with conducting the GNC elections.

•    March 13, 2012: The NTC passes their first constitutional amendment, extending the deadline to draft the constitution by two months and declaring that the representative 60-member Constituent Assembly tasked with drafting the constitution will be appointed by the GNC. 

•    July 5, 2012: After federalist protesters, demanding Constituent Assembly elections, threaten to shut down oil sites in Libya, the NTC passes constitutional amendment No. 3 declaring that the Constituent Assembly will be elected by popular vote, hoping to appease the federalist opposition.

•    July 7, 2012: The NTC hold elections for the 200-member General National Congress (GNC). 

•    July 17, 2012: The NTC announces GNC election results. 120 seats are reserved for independent candidates and 80 seats for political parties. The liberal-leaning National Forces Alliance won the majority vote, receiving 39 out of the 80 available seats. 

•    August 8, 2012: The NTC hands over power to the GNC and is officially dissolved.  

•    August 10, 2012: Mohamed Magarief is elected President of the GNC. 

•    September 11, 2012: Libyan militants storm the U.S. Consulate in Benghazi killing four Americans, including the U.S. Ambassador, Christopher Stevens. 

•    September 13, 2012: The GNC elects Mr. Mustafa Abu Shagar as Libya’s new Prime Minister. He is dismissed a month later after the GNC twice rejects his proposal to put together a new cabinet. 

•    September 23, 2012: GNC President Magarief vows to disband all illegal militias in Libya in response to the attack on the U.S. Embassy in Benghazi. 

•    October 1, 2012: GNC President Magarief makes an open statement to the Libya Herald that he is in favor of a “secular” Libya where religious groups cannot make legislative decisions. 

•    October 14, 2012: The GNC elects Mr. Ali Zidan to replace Shagar as Libya’s Prime Minister.  

•    December 2012: Twenty-six activists gather in Tripoli to discuss the involvement of women in the constitutional process, including their role in the Constituent Assembly.  

•    January 24, 2013: British, Germany and the Netherlands urge their citizens to leave Benghazi as the GNC leaves the security issue un-addressed. 

•    February 5, 2013: As the Supreme Court debates the validity of the July 2012 amendment, the GNC votes to comply with the amendment, preempting public dissent and confusion by emphasizing their commitment to a public election for the Constituent Assembly. 

•    February 28, 2013: The Constitutional Chamber of the Libyan Supreme Court declares constitutional amendment No. 3 passed in July 2012 as invalid on the grounds that the NTC had not reached quorum for its vote on this amendment, as required by the Constitutional Declaration. 

•    April 9, 2013: The GNC passes Amendment 4, which confirms that the Constituent Assembly will be elected through “free and direct polling”.

•    May 5, 2013: The GNC passes a Political Isolation Law, declaring a ten-year ban from public office for all those who held a senior post in Gaddafi’s regime. 

•    May 28, 2013: GNC President Magarief, who had served as ambassador to India under the Gaddafi regime, announces his resignation in response to the Political Isolation Law. 

•    June 9, 2013: The GNC passes a resolution calling for all militia groups remaining from the revolution to be disbanded and their members integrated into the army or police. 

•    June 25, 2013: The GNC elects Nouri Abusahmen, a Berber and an Independent MP, as their new President. 

•    July 16, 2013: The GNC approves a controversial election law for the 60-seat Constituent Assembly, with only 6 seats allocated for women and 6 seats for minority groups. Currently no date has been set for the Constituent Assembly elections.

•    July 17, 2013: Members of Libyan Amazigh, Tibu and Tuareg minority groups denounce the electoral law as unrepresentative and threaten to boycott the elections. Four Amazigh GNC members resign in protest. 

•    July 27, 2013: Protesters storm the offices of the Justice and Construction Party, the Muslim Brotherhood’s political party in Libya, blaming the Brotherhood for the assassination of political activist Abdelsalam al-Mismari. 

•    August 2013: Instances of violence and disorder grow more frequent, particularly in the cities of Benghazi and Derna, with over 51 political assassinations, prison breaks in Tripoli and Benghazi, and frequent clashes between militias, protesters and the military.  

•    September 2013: A series of power cuts, water shortages, decreased oil production and a recent shortage in mobile top-up cards for the state-owned company Libyana fuel anti-government sentiment and prompt frequent calls for the Prime Minister to stand down. 

•    October 5, 2013: U.S. Special Forces kidnap Abu Anas al-Libi, a Libyan militant and suspected al Qaeda affiliate, in Tripli. U.S. forces carry out a parallel raid in Somalia in an attempt to kidnap the senior leader of Somali militant group, Shabab, two weeks after Shabab members killed 60 people at a Nairobi shopping mall.

•    October 7, 2013: The High National Elections Committee (HNEC) begins registering candidates of Libya’s Constituent Assembly, with elections tentatively scheduled for December 24th. 

•    October 10, 2013: Prime Minister Ali Zeidan is “arrested” at gunpoint by militia members, held for several hours and questioned about his role in the U.S. arrest of the Libyan al Qaeda suspect, and released unharmed. 

•    October and November, 2013: Militant violence continues to rock Libya as militia leader is killed, masses of militia men attack Tripoli in retaliation, Berber protestors seize control of and shut down gas supplies to Italy in an attempt to pressure the government into giving them better representation on the constitution-writing panel. The same Berber group had previously halted oil production by storming one of Libya’s eastern oil fields.

•    November 9, 2013: Hundreds of Libyans flock to the streets in protest against attempts to extend the GNC’s mandate. They demanded that a new congress, one that would not include political parties, be elected on December 24th.

•    November 12, 2013: Registration of candidates for Libya's Consitutional Assembly closes

•    November 16, 2013: In Tripoli, Militiamen opened fire on Protesters, who demanded that armed militia groups leave the country, killing 50 people and leaving hundreds of civilians injured. The militia groups declared that they would not leave until a new constitution is drawn up. This event sparks a renewed wave of violence in Libya, drawing international concerns over the Nation’s ability to write-up a new constitution amidst such violent chaos.

•    December 4, 2013: The Libyan National Assembly votes to install Islamic (Sharia) Law as the source of all legislation.

•    December 14, 2013: Voter registration for Libya’s constituent assembly ends with a low registration rate of only 286,000. The voter registration period is extended another month to allow more Libyans the opportunity to participate in elections.

•    December 23, 2013: Libya’s interim government, the General National Congress, votes to extend the constitutional transition period by a year, giving them extra time to oversee the writing of a new constitution and to hold new elections. 

The Arab World In Transition: 

Constitutional Timelines for Tunisia, Egypt and Libya

Tunisia

Egypt

Libya

info at libertascc dot com

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